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Diabete: exames de rotina e diagnóstico

Confira quais exames são capazes de diagnosticar a diabete

Publicado em 19/09/2013

Injeção

Foto: Getty Images

Para detectar a doença, o exame básico é a chamada glicemia de jejum, que deve estar entre 70 a 110 mg por 100 ml de sangue. Se o resultado ultrapassar 126 em dois exames seguidos, é diabete na certa. Mas se os números apontarem entre 110 e 125, pede-se o teste oral de tolerância à glicose para tirar a teima. O indivíduo ingere 75 gramas de glicose diluída em água e, após duas horas, faz o exame de sangue. O diabete é diagnosticado se estiver acima de 200. Um valor entre 140 e 199 acusa um quadro de pré-diabete.
 
Uma vez diagnosticado, o diabético terá que incorporar à sua rotina diária o glicosímetro - o aparelho que mede a glicemia. Dependendo do caso, ele deverá monitorá-la várias vezes ao dia pois é o único jeito de evitar descompensações.
 
Além disso, para manter a doença sob controle, essas pessoas devem realizar, pelo menos duas vezes ao ano, o exame da hemoglobina glicada, ou A1C. Só ele detecta como se comportou o açúcar nos últimos dois ou três meses, dado essencial para saber a quantas andam os estragos no organismo. O exame dosa a quantidade de glicose que se combinou com a hemoglobina dos glóbulos vermelhos, ou seja, o quanto de açúcar circulou pelo sangue naquele período, que é justamente o tempo de vida das hemácias.
 
O paciente também deve visitar o oftalmo uma vez ao ano e fazer rotineiramente exames da função dos rins e dos nervos, além dos básicos de colesterol e triglicérides. Em alguns casos, é preciso também ecocardiograma e teste ergométrico. Recentemente o Laboratório Fleury, em São Paulo, elaborou um check-up específico para flagrar complicações nos pés. Ele envolve exames de sensibilidade e avaliação da circulação local.

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